Yeah those are close, but still not it.
The billiard table in Django Unchained actually has pockets which are covered over by pocket inserts.
It is a square pool table with a center pedestal leg and 3 supports.
The center definitely has a hole, but it looks smaller than the balls so it is probably meant to be an obstacle rather than a target.
Not sure if it helps anyone identify it, but they were using a set of balls with a cue ball, some yellow balls with red dots (at least 2), and some red balls (at least 2).
From your image, I looked up the patent and it describes the game which was intended to be played on that table:
To play the game, the player takes one of the balls in his hand and endeavors to make it hit two other balls, which, if he succeeds, counts a point; or he may endeavor to hit one ball and force that one to hit another or drive it in one of the pockets.
It will be seen that the curved sides of the board serve the purpose or in place of the cushions of an ordinary billiard-table, the ball rolling up and down the incline, as shown in Fig. 1. The ball thrown or projected should be slightly heavier than the others, so as to impart considerable motion to the latter when struck.
...and describing the playing surface:
While I have shown the board or table as square, it may be of any regular form so long as the sides are curved or inclined. Nor do I mean to confine myself to the means shown for adjusting the table, as it is obvious that it can be leveled by means other than the screws.
The pockets are not essential and may be omitted when desired.
When the game apparatus is not in. use, a flat top or cover may be laid upon the board B, so as to form a table; or, if preferred, the board may be removed from its supporting stand to facilitate its storing.
- A billiard or pool table having a flat bottom and curved or inclined sides connected directly with the bottom and up which the balls may roll...
- A billiard or pool table having a flat bottom and curved sides to act in place of cushions and pieces extending diagonally across the corners to form pockets, substantially as shown and described.
...this description makes sense what we're seeing in the one in the movie. In the movie it looks like the corner banks cover pockets and the rail banks cover standard rails perhaps and may be removed when billiards is the desired game.
And a bunch more images of the game table: